Sunday, May 09, 2021

Case Studies

Turning Torso in Sweden by Architect Santiago Calatrava

Turning Torso in Sweden by Architect Santiago Calatrava

Turning Torso in Sweden by Architect Santiago Calatrava is a beautiful residential skyscraper as well as the tallest building in Scandinavia. The first twisted skyscraper in the world is Turning Torso. Also, Turning Torso is a Neo-futurist skyscraper. It took 6 years to complete the project. From 1999-2001 designing was done and from 2001-2005 construction took place.

Architect Santiago Calatrava

Art and Architecture have a very strong connection with each other. Architecture is incomplete without art and artist. And talking about the artist in the field of architecture one name that always pops in our mind is Santiago Calatrava. Santiago has shone in many fields from pottery to painting to engineering and of course the world of architecture.

Santiago Calatrava was born in Valencia a city in Spain in 1951. He studied Architecture from Valencia, post-graduation degree in Urbanism from Zurich, and obtain a Ph.D. in civil engineering from Zurich. Calatrava has won many awards for his remarkable work. Nature and human form always inspire him. Also, the things he sees around him inspire his work. By playing with materials and light he captures movement in the structure. For example, the flight of the bird is the inspiration behind the Milwaukee Art Museum.

Turning Torso in Sweden by Architect Santiago Calatrava
The Milwaukee Art Museum
Turning Torso in Sweden by Architect Santiago Calatrava

The concept behind the design of The Milwaukee Art museum

Santiago Calatrava has designed many such beautiful masterpieces. Turning Torso is indeed one of them.

Turning Torso

Introduction

Turning Torso is a beautiful residential skyscraper in Sweden as well as the tallest building in Scandinavia. The first twisted skyscraper in the world is Turning Torso. Also, Turning Torso is a Neo-futurist skyscraper. It took 6 years to complete the project. From 1999-2001 designing was done and from 2001-2005 construction took place.

Indeed the project was part of the transformation of Malmö’s Western Harbour near the bridge connecting to Sweden and Denmark. The structure is 190m tall with 54 stories and 147 apartments. Steel, as well as concrete, are the main building materials.

  • Average floor area           –  400 sq m
  • Facade area                    – 215278 sq ft
  • Net floor area                   – 227710 sq ft
  • Total residential space     – 14600 sq m (3rd – 9th cube)
  • Total office space             – 4200 sq m (1st and 2nd cube)

 Building has won many awards such as:

  • 50 Most Influential Tall Buildings of the last 50 Years
  • Ten year Award from CTBUH
  • fib 2006 Award for Outstanding Concrete Structures
  • MIPIM Award for the Turning Torso Tower
  • SBI Silver Beam Award for the Turning Torso Tower
Turning Torso in Sweden by Architect Santiago Calatrava
Turning Torso

Concept

  • The basic concept of the building is based on the upright human body in motion, twisting of the body as far as possible.
  • The form is made up of 9 cubes. Whereas each individual cube includes 5 floors of the building.
  • Moreover, there is a difference of 90 degree from ground floor to top floor.
Turning Torso in Sweden by Architect Santiago Calatrava
Concept sketches for Turning Torso

Structural details

  • The structure is constructed on the foundation of a cylindrical box with a diameter of 30m and a depth of 15m.
  • Also, the foundation slab rests on limestone bedrock of 7m depth.
  • Whereas 1ft thick concrete floor slab is cantilevered from the concrete tub core of radius- 10.6mts
Foundation details
Turning Torso in Sweden by Architect Santiago Calatrava
Structural details
  • The exterior of the building has steel support known as steel spine. While it works as the exoskeleton for the structure, it helps to reduce wind displacement and acts as the reinforcing truss.
  • 20 horizontal, as well as 18 diagonal members known as cigars, make the steel support.
Steel spine

Floor plan

Each floor has a square section around the core while a triangular part is supported by a steel spine. The foundation slab supports the central core whereas the pile foundations support the concrete column of the corner of each floor.

The core part has the lift as well as a staircase. There is a total of 3 lifts and one fire escape staircase.

Turning Torso in Sweden by Architect Santiago Calatrava
Lift and staircase position in floor plan
Floor plan of residential floor
Typical commercial floor plan

Construction process of Turning Torso in Sweden

  • After completion of the foundation, construction of the core started. The core has cast in the sliding form which has suspended between vertical beams and can slide upwards.
  • Also, the walls around the lift and staircase have poured in suspended forms. Moreover, Walls have poured in connection with the core. Similarly, most of the reinforcement has prefabricated at shops to reduce time. The forms of the floor have rotated by 1.6 degrees at each floor, and the characteristic twist has achieved. The steel spine has erected at the time when the construction of the 5th cube has completed.
  • The core indeed is the main load-bearing structure.
  • Walls are 8ft thick at the bottom whereas 1ft thick at the top.
  • The lift shaft, as well as the staircase, is located inside the core.
Construction of foundation
Core Construction
Construction of floor

Lateral Loads

Lateral Loads

  • Steel spine     
load on steel spin
  • Cantilever floor slab
Lateral load transferring to cantilever slabs
  • Core concrete
Cantilever load is transferred to concrete core
  • Foundation
From concrete core load is transferred to foundation

The wind was also the important load factor. Therefore, a steel spine has introduced. While studying the wind load architect found that in severe storm structure can move up to 3ft.

Façade

Glass, as well as aluminum, has used for facades. Total 2800 panels, as well as 2250 windows, have installed.

Sustainability

Energy efficiency

  • Locally produced renewable energy is supplied to the building.
  • Also, rainwater harvesting is being done.
  • Moreover, all installations are energy efficient.

 Waste management

  • Recycling is done in building itself
  • Non recycle waste has been collecting in the garbage chute in the basement.
Reference

https://www.enforex.com/culture/santiago-calatrava.html

https://www.calatrava.com/projects/turning-torso-malmoe.html

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